The bejeweled Petralona Cave with its stalagmites and stalactites is about 300 m above sea level. The Cave was discovered in 1959 by an inhabitant of the Petralona village, Mr. Philippos Chatzaridis. An ovoid (0,7 m long), diaklasis (fracture) of the limestone in the Kalavros Mountain, which was created in the Jurassic era by undersea sediments, that emerged in various phases during next periods.
Most probably during the Mio-Pleiocene period, about 5 million years ago when the Cave’s main caverns were formed. It became known internationally when the famous fossilized skull of Petralona man was found by another villager,
Christos Sariannidis along with five other men (three of whom were scientists).